• The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world, goes back at least 5,000 years.
    Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in 12th were followed by European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism under Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU led to independence in 1947.
    The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
    Fundamental concerns in India include the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir, massive overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic strife, all this despite impressive gains in economic investment and output.
    (Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

    border countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), China (Xizang - Tibet Autonomous Region), Nepal, Pakistan

    related countries: Portugal, United Kingdom
      Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands State of Andhra Pradesh State of Assam Union Territory of Chandigarh Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli Union Territory of Delhi State of Gujarat State of Haryana Himachal Pradesh State of Jammu and Kashmir State of Kerala Union Territory of Lakshadweep State of Maharashtra State of Manipur State of Meghalaya State of Karnataka State of Nagaland State of Orissa Union Territory of Pondicherry State of Punjab State of Rajasthan State of Tamil Nadu State of Tripura State of West Bengal State of Sikkim State of Arunachal Pradesh State of Mizoram Union Territory of Daman and Diu State of Goa Bihar State of State of Madhya Pradesh State of Uttar Pradesh State of Chhattisgarh State of Jharkhand State of Uttaranchal
  • India City

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    Official Name:
    Bharat Ganarajya
    local short form: Bharat
    Int'l conventional long form: Republic of India
    Int'l conventional short form: India

    ISO Country Code: in
    Local Time = UTC +5:30h

    Country Calling Code: +91

    Capital City: New Delhi
    The Municipality of New Delhi (pop. 11 million).

    Other Cities:
    Mumbai Bombay
    Mumbai Metropolitan Region (formerly Bombay, pop. 15 million)
    Chennai, formerly Madras (pop. 6 million), Calcutta (12 million); ; Bangalore (5 million); Hyderabad (5 million); Ahmedabad (3.7 million)

    Federal Republic
    Independence: 15 August 1947 (from United Kingdom).

    Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan.
    Area: 3.3 million sq. km. (1.3 million sq. mi.)
    Terrain: varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys.

    Climate: Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north.

    Nationality: Noun and adjective--Indian(s).
    Population (1999 est.): one billion; urban population 32%.
    Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid 2%, others.
    Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Muslim 12%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5%.
    Languages: Hindi, English, and 16 other official languages. Literacy: 65%.

    Natural resources: Coal, iron, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil.

    Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish.

    Industries: Textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software.

    Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)

    India in numbers
    More India Statistical Data.